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Security data analytics and visualization with R

Data Analysis

Article from ADMIN 24/2014
By
Conduct improved security analysis and visualization of security-related data using R, a scripting language for statistical data manipulation and analysis.

In this era of massive computing environments, cloud services, and global infrastructure, it is reasonable to call data "big," although this is the first and last time I'll do so in this article.

The issue of massive data volume driven by scale is not new; the problem space has simply evolved. Data challenges are just more prevalent now given that even a small business or single user can generate significant data, because processing power and storage are commodity items easily attained. Even though it's a subset of the larger sum, security data is no less daunting, and given my bias, in many ways more important to manage, process, maintain, and analyze.

In a quest to conduct better analysis in massively dynamic environments, I embraced R a few months ago and now live in a steady state of epiphany as I uncover new opportunities for awareness and visualization (see the "Coursera Data Science Specialization" box). I've read several books while undertaking this endeavor, and one of the best and most inspirational is by Jay Jacobs and Bob Rudis [3] [4]. These few months later, my R skill level has improved just enough to share some insight with you. Imagine me as somewhere between total noob R script kiddie and modestly creative practitioner.

Coursera Data Science Specialization

Some key principles I use in this article I learned from the "Principles of Analytic Graphics" lecture provided in the Johns Hopkins University Exploratory Data Analysis course, a part of Coursera's Data Science [1] specialization.

You can take each of the courses in this terrific specialization for free online (I highly recommend them as part of learning R); however, if you want to achieve the specialization certificate, it's a small fee per course. This was my first experience with Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) learning, and I am still working my way through each of the tracks. They're great.

Roger Peng, in the "Principles" lecture, cites Edward Tufte from his book Beautiful Evidence [2] as follows:

  • Principle 1: Show comparisons
  • Principle 2: Show causality, mechanism, explanation
  • Principle 3: Show multivariate data
  • Principle 4: Integrate multiple modes of evidence
  • Principle 5: Describe and document the evidence
  • Principle 6: Content is king

The subtext of each of these principles is that a graphic should tell a complete, credible story while recognizing that "analytical presentations ultimately stand or fall depending on the quality, relevance, and integrity of their content" [2].

To that end, let me offer a bit of what I've learned; however, recognize that my background has long been security operations and analysis. I am by no means a developer, and it's even likely my code will offend those of you who are. This article is intended as a tool for those among you who, like me, are on the low end of the learning curve in this regard. Consider this an introduction, laced with proofs of concept and build-your-practice evangelism. Herein, I'll describe three security data and analysis scenarios, the intent of my analysis, and the related R script and result. All data samples and code can be downloaded from the Linux Magazine FTP site [5].

Strategy

One of the most important tenets of good data analysis is creating useful datasets and visualizations that allow discovery and increase awareness. R allows data scientists and analysts to do so in powerful ways. This is all the more useful in the information security arena because skill levels and depth of understanding vary greatly. Penetration testers and chief information security offices (CISOs) do not often speak the same language; however, a dataset derived from the results of a penetration test that is well represented in a meaningful graphic created with R helps both parties cross the technical divide.

To begin, I'll give you an R primer that assumes a Xubuntu Desktop 12.04.4 LTS instance. If you're not familiar with R, the R Project for Statistical Computing states: "R is a free software environment for statistical computing and graphics that compiles and runs on a wide variety of UNIX platforms, Windows and MacOS" [6].

With R installed, system issues resolved, and package dependencies met (see the "R Installation and Resources" box), I'll proceed with the first scenario.

R Installation and Resources

The R universe revolves around the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN). Their Ubuntu installation guidance is simple: I added

deb http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/cran/bin/linux/ubuntu precise/

to /etc/apt/sources.list (you'll select your preferred mirror) [7], then ran

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install r-base r-base-dev

From among the integrated development environment (IDE) options available for R, I use RStudio [8]. I downloaded RStudio 0.98.1083 Debian 6+/Ubuntu 10.04+ (32-bit) and ran:

sudo dpkg -i rstudio-0.98.1083-i386.deb

My favorite R resource starting point is Cookbook for R [9] along with R-bloggers [10] piped to my Feedly subscriptions. Although I'm not going to provide all the basics – I'm assuming you'll get yourself up to speed, or already are, on the principles of simple R operations, basic commands such as setting working directories, installing packages, loading library dependencies, running RStudio, and so on. I hope you have enough information to get underway and make use of the security data scenarios that follow.

That said, I will help you cut to the quick and overcome a few Ubuntu-related issues you'll encounter when setting up to work with R. For example, you'll regularly use a few R libraries required for the scripts I'll describe that need to be installed with a predefined variable; however, note that you might run into Java and XML issues on Ubuntu because the xlsx package prefers Oracle Java compared with the OpenJDK, and the XML package needs the libxml2-dev package. To solve these problems, enter:

sudo apt-get install python-software-properties
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:webupd8team/java
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install oracle-java7-installer libxml2-dev
sudo update-java-alternatives -s java-7-oracle
sudo R CMD javareconf

Opening RStudio is as easy as typing rstudio at the prompt or using the desktop Search button and starting it there. At the R console, begin by installing all the packages you need:

install.packages(c("data.table","dplyr","ggplot2","plyr","XML","xlsx","XLConnect"))

Figure 1 represents the RStudio user interface and package installation from the console. Just one troubleshooting note: Between each analysis, you might need Restart R under Session or via Ctrl+Shift+F10.

Figure 1: RStudio user interface.

RFI Attack Analysis

The first scenario is relatively straightforward with a simple, yet real-world, dataset and a small script that packs in some great fundamentals.

My website, holisticinfosec.org , is scanned and probed on a regular basis, as is common for all Internet-facing resources. One of the attack patterns regularly noted in logs represents remote file include (RFI) attempts. An excellent example of this attack, including a description, walk-through, and exploit is available at Exploit-DB [11].

Over the years, I've made use of a Perl script that reduces very long W3C Apache log entries down to just the basics needed to analyze RFI attacks, including a date and time stamp, the IP address, and the attack string. The file rfi-extract-July2011.log (Figure 2) represents just such a reduced dataset from July 2011, which will serve as the first example.

Figure 2: RFI attacker dataset (rfi-extract-July2011.log).

If you'd like to start with a tidy view, Ctrl+L clears the RStudio console of all the package installation text. For the first exercise, copy Listing 1 to a new script tab: Use Ctrl+Shift+N or click the plus icon in the upper left corner and select R Script from the drop-down menu.

Listing 1

RFIviz.R

01 ## Plot Top 10 IP addresses from RFI attacker logs
02 ## Russ McRee, @holisticinfosec
03
04 library(data.table)
05 library(plyr)
06 library(ggplot2)
07
08 setwd("~/R/RFI")
09 rfi <- read.csv("rfi-extract-July2011.log",header=TRUE, sep=",")
10
11 ## read in data to frame
12 data <- data.table(rfi)
13 ct <- count(data$IPAddress)
14 srt <- ct[order(ct$freq, decreasing = TRUE), ]
15 top10 <- head(srt,10)
16
17 ggplot(data=top10, aes(x=x, y=freq, fill=x)) 
   + geom_histogram(stat="identity", colour="black", show_guide=FALSE) 
   + scale_fill_brewer(palette="RdYlGn") + xlab("IP Addresses") 
   + ylab("Attack Frequency") 
   + theme(axis.text.x = element_text(angle = 45, hjust = 1, color="blue")) 
   + theme(axis.text.y = element_text(face = "bold", color="blue")) 
   + ggtitle("Top 10 RFI Attackers by IP") 
   + theme(plot.title=element_text(face="bold", size=15))

One of the beauties of R is the number of packages that exist to build on the R base and provide improved or more robust functionality. R is also incredibly well documented; almost every function and package help file can be called with help(), ?, or ?? (e.g., help(plot), ?plot, or ??plyr). Per each package's documentation, the data.table package inherits from data.frame and enhances it, whereas plyr represents a split-apply-combine paradigm for R, and ggplot2 is an implementation of the grammar of graphics (GG) in R that combines the advantages of both base and lattice graphics.

I set the working directory with setwd("~/R/RFI") (line 8). The rfi variable holds the data read in from the RFI logfile, a well-formed CSV-formatted file, using the read.csv() function (line 9). The data variable represents the rfi dataset as a data frame using the data.table package. Remember, you can return the results of any variable by typing it in the console. The ct variable makes use of the count function provided by the plyr package to count the number of times each attacking IP occurs in the logfile. Whereas data is the dataset, data$IPAddress represents the column of IP addresses in the log CSV file as a variable, as established by the column header. You can run names(data) which returns [1] "Date.Time" "IPAddress" "AttackString" to tell you all the column names. The srt variable makes use of the base order function to take the results of the ct variable and organize it in decreasing order by the number of times each IP address is noted (freq). Finally, the top10 variable captures the top 10 entries from the srt variable.

One thing you'll quickly learn about R is that you have numerous ways to solve the same problem. A better R programmer will likely read this and write a far better script to perform the same actions, but the point here is to learn as you go while representing information security data in useful ways.

The ggplot2 line is where the rubber hits the road. The plotting options [12] are endless: line, area, bar, box, density, histogram, and many more. For a great way to learn quickly about ggplot2, refer to Christophe Ladroue's quick introduction [13]. Per the RFIviz.R script, aesthetics are assigned via aes. I've built a histogram with this example to visualize the final dataset attributed to the top10 variable (Table 1).

Table 1

ggplot2 Histogram Elements

ggplot2 Code Action
data=top10, aes(x=x, y=freq, fill=x) Set the x axis with the top 10 IP addresses and the y axis with the frequency of their occurrence; base the color fill on the IP data.
stat="identity" Set the height of each histogram bar, represented by the value of counts per attacking IP address from the top10 data frame.
colour="black" Set a black border around each histogram bar.
show_guide=FALSE Eliminate the plot legend, which is unnecessary in this scenario.
scale_fill_brewer(palette="RdYlGn") Establish a red/yellow/green color scheme.
xlab("IP Addresses") + ylab("Attack Frequency") Label the x and y axes.
theme(axis.text.x = element_text(angle = 45, hjust = 1, color="blue")) Adjust the angle of the IP address, along with color and font in the x axis labels.
theme(axis.text.y)) Set the appearance of the y axis labels.
ggtitle("Top 10 RFI Attackers by IP") + theme(plot.)) Set the plot title and its appearance.

Notice that when I populate the data variable with input from rfi, the headers from the logfile are replaced with x for the IP address column and freq for the counts. These steps reduce the dataset to just what I need to conduct the analysis (frequency of attacking IP addresses). Although I lose the convenient column names and could redefine them within the data variable, I reintroduce them in the ggplot build in the final line.

Finally, to run the script, I select all content in the source pane, then click the Run button (Figure 3). It becomes immediately clear that the IP address 75.98.226.74 has made the most RFI attempts against my website during the time period analyzed. Information so clearly evident allows network defenders better options for IP banning, abuse reporting, and executive dashboards.

Figure 3: Histogram plot of RFI Top 10 attacking IP addresses.

Analyzing Spreadsheet Data

My second scenario involves a larger dataset, spanning months, in the form of an Excel workbook with many worksheets. The XLConnect package installed during setup allows users to manipulate Excel files directly from R. If you'd like an overview of the package, you can run

demo(package = "XLConnect")

at the console for a demo. The workbook I refer to is an example file I created from one of many work streams in which teams track trends and statuses with spreadsheets. I did anonymize the data, and it will look anonymized, but the point is well made, and you can play with the data to your heart's content.

Excel does offer charting options, but the flexibility of doing data analysis with R has lead me to transition more often to R. Chris Leonard has an excellent treatise on the arguments for R [14]. The workbook includes data from each week (approximately) between July 27 and October 16, 2014. The four columns include a server count (HostCt ), the number of patches required per server (PatchCt ), the server owner (randomized seven-character string, ServerOwner ), and the applicable date (Date ), which is also the worksheet name. Figure 4 shows the source dataset.

Figure 4: The source Excel-based dataset for server patching is ready for R manipulation.

Based on the data for July 27 in Figure 4, you can see that server owner EYXNBGF clearly has the most servers in need of security patches. The question is whether that trend continues across months, which R can find out using the code in Listing 2.

Listing 2

PatchStatsTop10.v.0.3.R

001 ## Server Owner Trend Analysis
002 ## -Missing Security Patches
003 ## Russ McRee, @holisticinfosec
004
005 library(XLConnect)
006 library(ggplot2)
007 library(dplyr)
008
009 setwd("~/R/PatchStats")
010 patchstats <- loadWorkbook("PatchStats_10_16.xlsx")
011 sheet1 <- readWorksheet(patchstats, sheet = 1)
012 sheet2 <- readWorksheet(patchstats, sheet = 2)
013 sheet3 <- readWorksheet(patchstats, sheet = 3)
014 sheet4 <- readWorksheet(patchstats, sheet = 4)
015 sheet5 <- readWorksheet(patchstats, sheet = 5)
016 sheet6 <- readWorksheet(patchstats, sheet = 6)
017 sheet7 <- readWorksheet(patchstats, sheet = 7)
018 sheet8 <- readWorksheet(patchstats, sheet = 8)
019 sheet9 <- readWorksheet(patchstats, sheet = 9)
020 sheet10 <- readWorksheet(patchstats, sheet = 10)
021 sheet11 <- readWorksheet(patchstats, sheet = 11)
022 sheet12 <- readWorksheet(patchstats, sheet = 12)
023
024 ## read in data to frame
025 data1 <- sheet1
026 patchdata1 <- data.frame(data1)
027 top1 <- patchdata1 %>%
028         select(HostCt, ServerOwner, Date) %>%
029         arrange(desc(HostCt))
030 head1 <- head(top1, 25)
031
032 data2 <- sheet2
033 patchdata2 <- data.frame(data2)
034 top2 <- patchdata2 %>%
035         select(HostCt, ServerOwner, Date) %>%
036         arrange(desc(HostCt))
037 head2 <- head(top2, 25)
038
039 data3 <- sheet3
040 patchdata3 <- data.frame(data3)
041 top3 <- patchdata3 %>%
042         select(HostCt, ServerOwner, Date) %>%
043         arrange(desc(HostCt))
044 head3 <- head(top3, 25)
045
046 data4 <- sheet4
047 patchdata4 <- data.frame(data4)
048 top4 <- patchdata4 %>%
049         select(HostCt, ServerOwner, Date) %>%
050         arrange(desc(HostCt))
051 head4 <- head(top4, 25)
052
053 data5 <- sheet5
054 patchdata5 <- data.frame(data5)
055 top5 <- patchdata5 %>%
056         select(HostCt, ServerOwner, Date) %>%
057         arrange(desc(HostCt))
058 head5 <- head(top5, 25)
059
060 data6 <- sheet6
061 patchdata6 <- data.frame(data6)
062 top6 <- patchdata6 %>%
063         select(HostCt, ServerOwner, Date) %>%
064         arrange(desc(HostCt))
065 head6 <- head(top6, 25)
066
067 data7 <- sheet7
068 patchdata7 <- data.frame(data7)
069 top7 <- patchdata7 %>%
070         select(HostCt, ServerOwner, Date) %>%
071         arrange(desc(HostCt))
072 head7 <- head(top7, 25)
073
074 data8 <- sheet8
075 patchdata8 <- data.frame(data8)
076 top8 <- patchdata8 %>%
077         select(HostCt, ServerOwner, Date) %>%
078         arrange(desc(HostCt))
079 head8 <- head(top8, 25)
080
081 data9 <- sheet9
082 patchdata9 <- data.frame(data9)
083 top9 <- patchdata9 %>%
084         select(HostCt, ServerOwner, Date) %>%
085         arrange(desc(HostCt))
086 head9 <- head(top9, 25)
087
088 data10 <- sheet10
089 patchdata10 <- data.frame(data10)
090 top10 <- patchdata10 %>%
091         select(HostCt, ServerOwner, Date) %>%
092         arrange(desc(HostCt))
093 head10 <- head(top10, 25)
094
095 data11 <- sheet11
096 patchdata11 <- data.frame(data11)
097 top11 <- patchdata11 %>%
098         select(HostCt, ServerOwner, Date) %>%
099         arrange(desc(HostCt))
100 head11 <- head(top11, 25)
101
102 data12 <- sheet12
103 patchdata12 <- data.frame(data12)
104 top12 <- patchdata12 %>%
105         select(HostCt, ServerOwner, Date) %>%
106         arrange(desc(HostCt))
107 head12 <- head(top12, 25)
108
109 mergedTop25 <- rbind(head1,head2,head3,head4,head5,
    head6,head7,head8,head9,head10,head11,head12)
110
111 EYXNBGF <- filter(mergedTop25, ServerOwner=="EYXNBGF")
112 CKMRXVA <- filter(mergedTop25, ServerOwner=="CKMRXVA")
113 MIABCJT <- filter(mergedTop25, ServerOwner=="MIABCJT")
114 CCBFJKC <- filter(mergedTop25, ServerOwner=="CCBFJKC")
115 JUQSXKI <- filter(mergedTop25, ServerOwner=="JUQSXKI")
116 RACZPRU <- filter(mergedTop25, ServerOwner=="RACZPRU")
117 VGDSOFF <- filter(mergedTop25, ServerOwner=="VGDSOFF")
118 QSJBRKC <- filter(mergedTop25, ServerOwner=="QSJBRKC")
119 EJZRDBP <- filter(mergedTop25, ServerOwner=="EJZRDBP")
120 WRWTCWR <- filter(mergedTop25, ServerOwner=="WRWTCWR")
121
122 p <- ggplot() 
 + geom_line(data = EYXNBGF, aes(x = Date, y = HostCt, color = "EYXNBGF")) 
 + geom_line(data = CKMRXVA, aes(x = Date, y = HostCt, color = "CKMRXVA")) 
 + geom_line(data = MIABCJT, aes(x = Date, y = HostCt, color = "MIABCJT")) 
 + geom_line(data = CCBFJKC, aes(x = Date, y = HostCt, color =  "CCBFJKC")) 
 + geom_line(data = JUQSXKI, aes(x = Date, y = HostCt, color = "JUQSXKI")) 
 + geom_line(data = RACZPRU, aes(x = Date, y = HostCt, color = "RACZPRU")) 
 + geom_line(data = VGDSOFF, aes(x = Date, y = HostCt, color = "VGDSOFF")) 
 + geom_line(data = QSJBRKC, aes(x = Date, y = HostCt, color = "QSJBRKC")) 
 + geom_line(data = EJZRDBP, aes(x = Date, y = HostCt, color = "EJZRDBP")) 
 + geom_line(data = WRWTCWR, aes(x = Date, y = HostCt, color = "WRWTCWR")) 
 + xlab('Date (July 27 thru October 16)') 
 + ylab('Servers w/ Missing Patches (by owner)') 
 + guides(fill=FALSE)p 
 + theme(legend.title = element_text(colour="navy", size=16, face="bold")) 
 + scale_color_discrete(name="Top 10\nServer Owner\n Patch Trends") 
 + guides(colour = guide_legend(override.aes = list(size=3))) 
 + theme(axis.text.x 
 = element_text(face = "bold", color="black"), axis.text.y 
 = element_text(face = "bold", color="black"), axis.title.x 
 = element_text(face = "bold", color="navy", vjust=-0.35), axis.title.y 
 = element_text(face = "bold", color="navy", hjust=0.50))

While taking advantage of the XLConnect package, I also make liberal use of the dplyr package. To do it justice, I'll direct you to an introduction to dplyr by the author, Hadley Wickham [15]. Wickham describes dplyr as a fast, consistent tool for working with both in-memory and out-of-memory data-frame-like objects (e.g., data tables, databases, multidimensional arrays). More importantly, dplyr helped me solve problems easily and conveniently that, as a fledgling R script writer, otherwise could have been over complicated. Hadley states:

dplyr aims to make each of these steps as fast and easy as possible by:

  • Elucidating the most common data manipulation operations, so that your options are helpfully constrained when thinking about how to tackle a problem.
  • Providing simple functions that correspond to the most common data manipulation verbs, so that you can easily translate your thoughts into code.
  • Using efficient data storage backends, so that you spend as little time waiting for the computer as possible.

After loading the required packages and setting the working directory (lines 5-9), XLConnect allows me to access readWorksheet and load each worksheet, representing data from a specific date, as a variable. Here's where the dplyr magic kicks in.

In lines 25-30, data1 simply reads the data from the first worksheet, sheet1, created with the readWorksheet in line 11. patchdata1 then defines the content from data1 as a data frame. Five basic dplyr data manipulation verbs work on a single table: filter(), arrange(), select(), mutate(), and summarise().

In top1 I use the select verb to gather HostCt, ServerOwner, and Date from the patchdata1 data frame, then arrange it in descending order by HostCt. The head operation simply vectorizes the top 25 entries from the dataset. I repeat this for each worksheet in the workbook, then bind all rows of data from each week back into one dataset with rbind in mergedTop25 (line 109).

This process reduces data down only to that which is necessary for the visualization I want to achieve. The filter verb, as seen in line 111,

EYXNBGF <- filter(mergedTop25, ServerOwner=="EYXNBGF")

allows me to encapsulate data specific to server owner EYXNBGF by date and host count (Figure 5).

Figure 5: The EYXNBGF data frame built with the dplyr filter verb.

For a much cleaner, more legible graphic, I take only the top 10 data points (ServerOwners) from my top 25 dataset for visualization and plot the variables, as defined in the filter statements, in the last line of Listing 2 with:

geom_line(data = EYXNBGF, aes(x = Date, y = HostCt, color = "EYXNBGF"))

Each plot line is colored uniquely per each server owner dataset. The theme elements tidy up and define the axis and legend text. The result is seen in Figure 6.

Figure 6: A plot for top 10 server owner patch trends.

The early evidence was that server owner EYXNBGF had the most servers in need of security patches. While that remains true, since July 27, EYXNBGF has in fact reduced the number of servers in need of security patches by approximately 1,000. That represents a positive trend. A few more indicators show up, both positive and negative. CKMRXVA shows a pretty dramatic dip, as well as a noteworthy jump in missing security patches from CCBFJKC. You might be able to identify interesting anomalies with a good graphic, too.

September 4, for example, shows a dramatic, rather consistent dip on most server owner data, which is likely indicative of a failure in the data collection mechanism rather than everyone patching approximately the same amount at the same time. As such, visualizing your data allows good trend analysis, as well as potential failure detection. It really begins to exemplify the value of working with R for security data analytics and visualization.

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